In 2011, by virtue of a supply of monopoly advantage, the introduction of intensive industrial policy coordination, within half a year, most of China's rare earth raw material prices tenfold increase, stock market also once to madness. However, due to China's rare earth industry congenital defects and external supply shock, since the second half of 2011, up to now, the vast majority of rare earth raw material price appeared in more than 60% decline, some even up to 80%.
Happy days is too short
Recently, a south rare earth listing Corporation responsible person said: " the first half of last year, the enterprise exploitation quantity is not enough, but also from the outside of the procurement of raw materials, but now even 1000 tons is sold do not go out. Have never seen such a cold market demand. "
The responsible person said, the domestic rare earth industry labor pains not short time can heal. " Estimated that the domestic rare earth industry winter days will continue for two or three years. " In this regard, Qilu Securities Research Analyst Yan Lei said, rare earth smelting products prices fall behind, reflecting the rare earth industry domestic and abroad, the interest game between upstream and downstream.
At present, the overall pattern of global rare earth industry, industry chain upstream is the monopoly of China; industry chain downstream technology by Japan, the United States and other countries monopoly; rare earth smelting products prices, is actually China and Japan and other countries competing interests.
Previously, due to prolonged sitting on the superiority of rare earth resource, our country lags behind in technology application of rare earth in China Japan and America, not fully enjoy the technological advances brought about by the profits of the industry upgrade.
" China not to obtain the global rare earth resource supply monopoly status, once again take the dumping of old road. Thus, the next few years the global rare earth resources will produce apparent change of pattern of supply and demand. It is estimated that 3 years of Chinese rare earth resource supply global proportion or will be reduced from 95% to 60%. " Yan Lei says.
International rare earth resources pattern reconstruction
Prior to this, in order to deal with the Chinese rare earth products prices, overseas rare earth mine production capacity release speed some exceeded market expectations.
According to the United States Geological Survey data, the United States, Australia 's rare earth reserves accounted for global 13.1% and 5.5%, and has the rare earth ore mining history, will be the next few years China rare earth separation products main competitors.
It is worth mentioning that, the United States Mountain Pass mine already on 2011 to restart. In the production, the mine was producing rare earth smelting products about 5000 tons of REO.
Today, Mountain Pass mine owners the United States of America Molly mineral company has plans to further expand the rare earth ore mining and smelting separation of business investment, will be 2013 rare earth separation capacity increased to 40000 tons REO/. Another major rival Australia Lynas mineral company 's Mount Weld mine in 2012 will create 11000 tons of REO/ years of mining production, supporting the Malaysia rare earth separation plant will also be put into operation in 2012, in 2013 the company plans to further expand production capacity to 21000 tons of REO / year.
Yan Lei expresses, at present is determined by comparing the overseas rare earth smelting capacity respectively, 2012 REO/ year overseas production is 31000 tons, 61000 tons in 2013 REO/ years.
Reportedly, the domestic rare earth industry " regular army", only to be confronted with the impact of overseas rare earth ore mining, but also with rare earth ore mined illegally, smuggling, face to face confrontation.
Data shows, 2011 through the normal channels of export of rare earth smelting product quantity not to export quota of 50%, 2012 to estimate may be less than 30%, and most of these vacancies in overseas markets, may be low-priced smuggled products by occupation. In addition, China rare earth exports quota only for domestic-funded enterprises, joint ventures, foreign capital enterprise is not incorporated into the management system of rare earth. Therefore, many joint ventures, foreign-funded enterprises are overseas rare-earth deep-processing enterprises in China to set up the shares of the company, this part enterprise is nominally rare-earth deep-processing enterprises, but in fact only on rare earth smelting products were simple rough after export, processing procedures completed overseas.
In the first round of rare earth product prices, large quantities of rare-earth rough products at low prices to the overseas parent company exports, China not only avoid the export control also compresses the normal export product market space.
Domestic rare earth industry reforming time
It is understood, in global rare earth resource supply pattern change at the same time, the domestic rare earth industry also was wildly beating gongs and drums.
At the beginning of 8, the Ministry of industry and information technology issued a " rare earth industry access conditions ", this is the first time for China from the respect of scale of production setting rare access threshold, also marks the Chinese rare earth industry will usher in a new round of mergers and reorganization.
According to the " rare earth industry access conditions ", at present, about 30% of the domestic rare earth ore mining and 50% rare earth separation enterprises are not up to the minimum standard of the scale of production capacity, the company will be the first to be eliminated or by annex fate.
In accordance with the access conditions, the first step of the target will be rare earth ore mining enterprise is reduced to about 15, independent of the smelting separation of enterprises is reduced to about 50. Rare earth industry finally the integration of large enterprise groups goal is to form 2-3.
On September, Ministry of land natural resources also announced the first list of rare earth mining right, this integration is to change the rare earth mining multiple, small, scattered, chaotic situation, most of the mining right focus on the advantages of enterprises. This marks the country has rare earth integration sword to industry sources, the mining right of control, improve the industry concentration, large enterprises as the dominant rare earth development pattern is being formed stage by stage.
From the mining right list, Sichuan 18 mining right has been integrated into 7, Ganzhou 88 rare earth mining right integration into 44, countrywide rare earth mining right by more than 100 is reduced to 67.
In the rare earth resource reserves, light rare earth accounted for more than 95%, accounted for about 3% of heavy rare earth. Among them, the north light rare earth resources, on behalf of Inner Mongolia Baotou Baiyunebo rare earth ore; the south to heavy rare earth resources, representative is widely distributed in the seven southern provinces and regions of the weathered Elution-deposited rare earth ore G. In the light of rare earth resources in the field, the three mines in Inner Mongolia is the Baotou of Baiyunebo rare earth ore in Liangshan, Sichuan Maoniuping rare earth mine, Shandong Weishan rare earth mine, the actual holding side respectively is the Baotou iron and Steel Group, Jiangxi copper ( 600362) group and the China Steel group.
Recently, Baotou Rare Earth ( 600111) the company said, will be the rare earth as the core, set up Northern rare earth group, and has won the Ministry of industry and information technology by. The rare earth group in addition to the integration of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 's rare earth enterprises, but also the United Gansu, Sichuan, Shandong Province rare land company, implementation crosses a region of rare earth resources reorganization.
In 2011 December, Minmetals Non-ferrous Metals Holdings Limited was established, with Hunan Nonferrous Metals Group Company 100% and Minmetals non-ferrous metals Limited by Share Ltd ( referred to as " Minmetals non-ferrous metals " ) the equity of 92%, a group of non-ferrous metals assets of the integration platform. As of now, Minmetals non-ferrous metals in Jiangxi, Hunan, Fujian, Guangdong rare earth industry have layout, the next most likely to become heavy rare earth field only giants. Wherein, Minmetals non-ferrous metals have depth in Jiangxi rare earth industry, the enterprises holding the Minmetals rare earth ( Ganzhou ) Company and Jiangxi tungsten industry group, although there is no master of rare earth resources, but has become a heavy rare earth smelting and deep processing field of the leading domestic.
In addition, thanks to Minmetals Group and the Hunan nonferrous metals industry cooperation, Minmetals non-ferrous metals rare earth ( Jiang Hua ) Holding Group Limited has been obtained in Hunan province at present only a rare earth mining warrants, the future dominant Hunan rare earth ore mining and smelting areas of great possibility of separation.
At the same time, Fujian province of rare earth industry core integration of Xiamen tungsten industry ( 600549), Minmetals non-ferrous metals also holds 21% of its shares, is the second largest shareholder; in 2011 March, Minmetals non-ferrous and Guangdong Province Heyuan City Hall signed a strategic cooperation agreement, will be in Heyuan city to rare earth resources mainly of mineral resources exploration and development with the use of Guangdong Province, officially entered the field of rare earth.