China is the world's largest rare earth resources in the country, is also the world's largest exporter of rare earth. The peak supply more than 97% of the world's rare earth resources. Quite regrettable, but over the years, China's rare earth mining and has been hovering in the low-end export "cabbage price" to pay a heavy price environment, resources.
In 2011, the State Council issued the "State Council on promoting the sustained and healthy development of rare earth industry a number of opinions", China's management of specific minerals such as rare earth, unified planning, total control and comprehensive utilization policy, the establishment of the rare-earth linkage mechanism to achieve reasonable resources development and effective use.
"State Council on promoting the sustained and healthy development of rare earth industry a number of opinions", use 1 to 2 years, to establish a standardized and orderly development of rare earth resources, smelting separation and market order flow, disorderly exploitation of resources, deterioration of the ecological environment, The situation has been effectively curbed production blind expansion and export smuggling; basic formation of the pattern of the rare earth industry led to large enterprises, Enterprise Group of South ionic rare earth industry's top three industrial concentration of more than 80%; development of new products and new technology popularization and application of the accelerated pace of the rare earth new materials for the support and protection of downstream industries are obvious play; initial establishment of a unified, standardized, efficient rare earth industry management system, relevant policies and laws and regulations to further improve. Then three years or so, to further improve the institutional mechanism for the formation of rational development, orderly production, efficient use of state-of-the-art technology, the pattern of the sustained and healthy development of the intensive development of rare earth industry.
The main content of the planned complete rare earth mining and integration verification within reserves of rare earth mining area, and improve the reliability of the mineral resources to extend the mine life; increase the national planning of rare earth ore mining exploration efforts, proved a number of large and medium-sized rare earth mineral further improve the level of protection of the rare earth mineral resources; implementation of a rare earth mineral resources integration strategy, adjust the layout of the mine structure, the decrease in the number of mines, space layout optimization, and comprehensive improvement in the mining order, significantly improved the level of utilization of mineral resources; complete rare earth resource utilization level survey for the complicated changing conditions of the ore body, study and explore the state-of-the-art technology of rare earth mining and dressing, both rare earth mineral resources development and environmental protection, development and utilization from extensive to intensive, resource utilization efficiency is significantly improved; complete rare earth mining (including abandoned rare earth mine) geological environment comprehensive evaluation of the status quo and to establish and improve rare earth mine spent ore block approval of a filing system, dynamic regulatory system for rare earth mine reserves, mining recoveries assessment system.
Some estimates show that the disorderly exploitation after 20 years, the Ganzhou because rare earth mining caused environmental pollution, environmental restoration governance costs at least 38 billion yuan. This means that local governance rare earth mine environmental pollution and ecological destruction, there is still a long way to go.
Our reporter learned interview in Ganzhou Xinfeng County, the county's only abandoned mine area of 2087 hectares, the new soil erosion due to rare earth mining area of 2467 hectares and flooded 267 hectares of farmland choked drains, 34,000 m, and seriously affect the over 30 administrative villages in the production life of more than 50,000 villagers.
Xinfeng County in yttrium-rich europium rare earth reserves Habitat It is reported that the the Gannan first, original rare earth mining disorder, major the shabby pool dip Production, for every ton of rare earth oxide, it is necessary to emissions of 2,000 tons of tailings and 1000 tons of waste water. This has not only led to the deforestation of the mountain forests, also led to serious soil erosion. Moreover, the extraction of rare earth such as oxalic acid, ammonium sulfate, a large number of ions penetrate into the soil and spread to the entire mining area and surrounding areas, serious mountain and fields acidification caused by, the plants can not grow, contamination of the river, the ecological environment has been seriously damaged.
In recent years, the local government has attached great importance to the comprehensive management of waste rare earth mines, in accordance with the "who invest, who developed the Who governance benefits" principle, encourage enterprises, units and individuals to the development and control of rare earth tailings. First, they mixed with the alkaline limestone soil acidification, soil restoration to the original pH; Secondly, they to take "Yijiangdaibu way to guide investors to planting fruit trees, abandoned rare earth mine test, promotion economic crop.